South and central america dating
Recent discoveries in ) and that New World civilizations were built on an indigenous agricultural base.It is known archaeologically that cultural influences from Asia, as well as latter-day migrations of people such as the Eskimo, continued to impinge on parts of the New World over the millennia, but New World cultural developments that culminated in the formation of high civilizations in Mexico and Peru were overwhelmingly the product of native, independent invention in almost all spheres of cultural and social life.Migrants crossed from Siberia to Alaska, probably some 20,000 to 35,000 years ago (or perhaps earlier), when there was a land and ice bridge between the two continents.They seem to have remained locked in the northwestern sector of North America for eons, held back by impenetrable glacial formations.When the glacial cap retreated and valleys opened up, people (then existing as hunter-gatherers) began to follow the southward progression of game animals, fanning out across North America and down through Central America into South America, again a process occupying thousands of years.Archaeological discoveries have unearthed human skeletal remains in association with now-extinct species of animals and in geological deposits of the last phases of the Ice Age.
The original migrants to the New World had no knowledge of the domestication of plants or animals, with the exception of dogs, which were used in hunting.
These environmental relationships are mediated by the systems of technology that the people use to exploit their resources.
Four basic types of social and cultural organization of South American peoples emerge from the archaeological and historical records: (1) central Andean irrigation civilizations, (2) chiefdoms of the northern Andes and the circum-Caribbean, (3) tropical-forest farming villages, and (4) nomadic Early peoples, hunters and gatherers with no knowledge of agriculture, gradually worked their way across the Bering Strait in pursuit of food and meandered over North and South America in small, migratory bands for thousands of years.
The evidence on early hunting and gathering peoples in Peru is still sparse.
It is not yet possible to reconstruct social patterns, since most of the remains consist only of shellfish middens and small, widely scattered campsites along the coast.
They reached Tierra del Fuego in approximately 6000 , after passing through the bottleneck of Central America, dispersing in the rugged terrain of the northern Andes, following the resource-laden Caribbean coastline eastward, and filtering southward through the tropical lowlands now making up part of In South America, native language families encompassed large blocks of territory and numerous societies.