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This increase in mortality and morbidity can reflect the fact that girls born post-term may be more mature than their US-based GA indicates, as their EDD was moved forward in time because of their smaller size at the time of ultrasound pregnancy dating.
According to this hypothesis, male fetuses could be less mature than the US-based GA estimate, since the approximation of GA from fetal size used during ultrasound dating would not consider size differences.
This test is not quite as accurate as the combined test.
The aim of this study was to compare rates of adverse prematurity-related outcomes in early term and late preterm male infants in relation to their female counterparts, between a time period, when pregnancy dating was based on the LMP, and a time period when ultrasound was used for pregnancy dating, in order to assess the dating method’s influence on prematurity-related adverse outcomes by fetal sex.
After changing the pregnancy dating method, male infants born early term had, in relation to female infants, higher odds for pneumothorax (Cohort ratio [CR] 2.05; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.33–3.16), respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn (CR 1.99; 95 % CI 1.33–2.98), low Apgar score (CR 1.26; 5 % CI 1.08–1.47), and hyperbilirubinemia (CR 1.12; 95 % CI 1.06–1.19), when outcome was compared between the two time periods.
A similar trend was seen for late preterm male infants.
Misclassification of gestational age by ultrasound, due to size differences, can partially explain currently reported sex differences in early term and late preterm infants’ adverse neonatal outcomes, and should be taken into account in clinical decisions and when interpreting study results related to fetal sex.
The use of ultrasound (US) has an unquestionable role in modern obstetrical practice.
This is sometimes called a nuchal translucency scan.